Humbly nestled next to a laundromat on 236 Brighton Avenue is a martial arts gym with a combined team record of 83 wins and only 13 losses in professional and amateur bouts. Wai Kru Mixed Martial Arts, known simply as “Wai Kru”, is one of the most respected and sought out martial arts gyms in the Boston area, offering classes in Muay Thai, boxing, and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. There is no doubt that the success of Wai Kru’s fighters can be attributed to the work of highly experienced training staff – experts and world champions in their respective arts, with decades of experience. But could the physical space and design of the gym also explain why Wai Kru breeds such skilled individuals, while at the same time, maintains a very relaxed, welcoming, and pleasant atmosphere? This paper serves to analyze the indoor space of Wai Kru, and explain the possible effects of the design and environmental elements of color, music, ceiling height, noise, and lighting on an individual’s physical performance as well as on social interaction inside the gym.
Wai Kru attracts a diverse mixture of individuals, ranging from amateur and professional fighters seeking the highest levels of training, to casual martial arts enthusiasts seeking a fun way to get in shape while making friends along the way. Although Wai Kru primarily attracts young adult males, age and gender are not barriers to training, as seen by the significant number of skilled women who train at the gym, and the popularity of the children’s classes. The gym’s lead training staff hail from across the globe, from Boston, to Brazil, to Japan and Thailand, and are as diverse as the individuals they teach. The myriad individuals of different backgrounds create a wealth of accessible knowledge, making Wai Kru the top-notch gym that it is.
Effects on Physical performance
One design feature of the gym that particularly stands out is the distinct color scheme. From the mats, to the pillars, to the punching bags, even to the canvases of the boxing ring and cage, red is the used as the gym’s dominant color (fig 1.). Evidence from various experiments show that red can elicit certain psychological and physiological responses which positively affect individuals involved in physical activity.
Russel Hill and Robert Barton of Durham University explain that the color red causes instinctive biological responses in many animal species – responses such as increased testosterone.1 In the natural world, many animals show off their red colorations in order to attract females as potential mates, as well as to out-compete other males. According to Hill and Barton, exposure to the color red may serve a similar purpose in humans, causing increased testosterone levels and an increased competitive drive, which in turn translates to improved physical performance.2 Similar to what Hill and Barton explain, psychology professor Andrew Elliot of the University of Rochester writes that another possible reason why red improves physical performance may be due to the fact that red is instinctually seen as a sign or threat of danger, activating the “fight or flight” response, which triggers the production of adrenaline – a hormone that increases blood flow to muscles and oxygen to the lungs, causing increased strength and stamina.3 Furthermore, as Elliot notes, because red is associated with the color used to mark mistakes and errors during exams and evaluations, red may put a positive amount of pressure on an individual due to fear of failure, which results in an improved performance.4
Various research experiments provide evidence for the suspected physiological and psychological effects discussed above. As reported by Nicholas Hamid and Adrienne Newport of the University of Waikato, children exposed to “warm” colored environments (red, pink, etc.) demonstrated an increased in strength during a grip-force test as compared to when exposed to “cool” colored environments.5 A similar experiment testing grip strength was administered to adults at the University of Rochester. As expected, the results showed that the strength of participants increased significantly when exposed to a red stimulus. But interestingly, the results of the experiment also showed that subjects demonstrated improved reaction times due to the color red.6 Reaction time helps immensely in the martial arts, especially in the world of striking arts like boxing and kickboxing, where fast reactions and reflexes can make the difference between landing a punch or getting punched. Thus, Wai Kru’s red-colored boxing ring, and even the use red colored focus mitts (fig.2), may serve to heighten reflexes and improve reaction times. In addition, as suggested by leading Turkish heads of interior architecture and decoration Kemal Yildirim, Aysu Akalin Baskaya, and Lufti Hidayetoglu, red is not only a stimulating color, but also a color that makes people less confused when working.7 This ability of the color red to lessen confusion may assist individuals in learning the necessary techniques and learning the proper body mechanics of each martial art. Therefore, it appears that red not only benefits individuals physically, but also mentally, heightening focus and concentration. ? However, all the above experiments mentioned occurred under research conditions, in laboratory settings – so do the supposed effects of red actually translate into the “real world”? Russell Hill and Robert Barton of Durham University sought out to see whether the color red could improve performance during actual competition by studying the results of the 2004 Olympic Games. Hill and Barton focused on contestants from combat sports – boxing, taekwondo, and wrestling – and found that competitors who wore red colored gear won significantly more bouts than their opponents who wore blue.8 From these findings, it is apparent that red has the potential to aid individuals involved in physical activities and in competitive situations such as those found at Wai Kru.
Interestingly, Wai Kru utilizes several shades of the color red in its indoor space. The foam-covered posts possess the brightest and boldest red coloration, followed by the main mats and cage, which are of a bright slightly orange-colored shade. Last come the boxing ring and the older mats at the weightlifting area, which are of a more faded, lighter, less saturated red. And why is this significant? Internationally recognized expert on environmental psychology Dr. Sally Augustin argues that monochromatic spaces – environments that incorporate several intensities of the same color – have a soothing, relaxing effect.9 Therefore, by being a monochromatic space, Wai Kru minimizes the possible anxiety and fear experienced by both seasoned and novice members, providing a welcoming environment that puts individuals at ease despite the intimidating nature of combat sports.
As previously mentioned, environments which incorporate several intensities of the same color have a soothing, relaxing effect. But Augustin emphasizes that this phenomenon only applies to spaces that utilize colors other than white or beige. White and beige colored environments bring to mind healthcare and clinical settings – environments which individuals, as children, often learn to associate with feelings of tension, anxiety, and stress.10 Therefore, one possible flaw in Wai Kru’s design may be the color scheme of the first floor at ground level – white and beige. Even though the actual training facility in the basement is of a monochromatic red space, any negative first impressions felt by visitors on the ground floor – feelings of apprehension and intimidation – may deter them from even venturing down the stairs.
The relationship between colors is also important. Dr. Augustin explains that ideal environments are spaces where darker colors are used for lower surfaces such as on carpets and the bottom areas of walls, with lighter colors used on higher surfaces such as on ceilings.11 This color scheme, Augustin explains, helps individuals feel more comfortable and oriented. Interestingly, Wai Kru’s color scheme closely matches this “ideal design.” The top floor and entrance utilize dark-grey colored carpets along with white walls and ceilings, while the design of the main training facility in the basement consists of red and black mats, with white on the tops of walls and on the ceilings (fig.3). According to Augustin, these contrasting differences in brightness and saturation not only aid in relaxation, but also help increase energy levels.12
Increasing energy levels while at the same time aiding in relaxation may sound like a strange combination, but in fact, these effects caused by the contrasting colors at Wai Kru translate very well to the martial arts. When sparring or grappling, instructors always advice being calm and breathing slowly, because individuals perform better when relaxed – being tense is only going to hamper performance. By being relaxed, fighters are better able to recognize when to properly harness bursts of energy – this is when increased energy levels come into play. In short, by aiding in relaxation and increasing energy levels, Wai Kru’s overall color scheme allows individuals to train for a longer period of time, at a higher level of intensity.
Before one even heads down the stairs and sees the actual facility, one of the first things they will hear is the loud music that plays from several speakers located in the gym. Motivational music – such as the upbeat rap and hip hop music played at Wai Kru – when synchronized with movement, has been found to improve performance in anaerobic and aerobic endurance tasks.13 However, the music must have certain characteristics in order to maximize the potential benefits on physical performance.
The tempo of the music must match the intensity of the exercise, because as Albert Mehrabian writes in Public Places and Private Spaces, people unconsciously adjust the rhythm of their movements to the rhythm and tempo of the music they are listening to.14 Similarly, Judy Edworthy and Hannah Waring of Plymouth University report that in an experiment involving music and treadmill exercise, the speed of the music was found to affect the speeds at which the participants ran – faster music produced faster speeds.15 Other experiments support this phenomenon. James Waterhouse and P. Hudson from the Liverpool Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Science found that cyclists who were exposed to faster music worked harder and rode farther than when listening to slower music.16 In a similar experiment conducted by Lee Crust of the Sports Science Department in Lincoln College testing muscular endurance, participants were able to hold a weight for a longer period of time when listening to fast music with a tempo of 120 beats per minute (bpm) as compared to when listening to white noise.17 On the other hand, listening to sedative music often resulted in a decrease of strength, as found by Kathy A. Pearce of the University of Kansas.18 Therefore, in the context of Wai Kru, the use of fast-paced music benefits individuals, enabling them to strike harder, grapple with more intensity, and train for a longer period of time.
However, one might argue that because fast music causes individuals to work harder, they will tire faster as well. But in fact the case is quite the opposite. As explained by Edworthy and Waring, individuals who exercised with slow music as well as those who exercised without any music perceived themselves to be working harder, even though in reality they did not work harder and did not cover more distance than the other individuals who listed to fast music.19 So fast, up-tempo music serves a psychological function, making exercise sessions seem to go by faster, with less discomfort, as evidenced by the cyclists in Waterhouse and Hudson’s experiment, who not only pedaled faster and longer when listening to fast music, but also rode with more enthusiasm.20 Besides, as Karageorghis, Priest, and Williams suggest, preference for faster music increases as exercise intensity increases.21 Therefore if an individual is able to listen to the music they prefer and desire, they will stay more positive and motivated, causing the increase in physical performance demonstrated by the experiments discussed above. On the other hand, slow music or no music will make the physical activity seem to go on for longer, causing a decrease in enthusiasm and motivation which may explain the decrease in strength and performance in individuals as found by Crust.
But how does all the information above relate to the music played at Wai Kru? Music at the gym consists of mostly of hip-hop and rap, characterized by a heavy, up-tempo, steady, yet fast-paced beat. Hip-hop’s upbeat quality means that individuals training at Wai Kru are able to experience all the physical and psychological benefits of fast paced music noted earlier. According to heart rate charts, cardiovascular and muscular endurance training – exercises similar to grappling – result in heart rates that range from 105-140 beats per minute (bpm), while anaerobic high intensity training – such as hitting pads or grappling and sparing at high intensity – cause faster heart rates, ranging from 120 to 160 bpm.22 Interestingly, these heart rate ranges very closely match the typical range of rap songs – 100 to 150 bpm23 – which coincides with Mehrabian’s theory that people unconsciously adjust the rhythm of their movements with the tempo of the music. And as discussed earlier, because people’s preference for fast music also increases as exercise intensity increases, the upbeat rap music played at Wai Kru helps individuals stay more motivated and enthusiastic during physical tasks, helping fighters get through particularly grueling training sessions with as little discomfort as possible.
Karageorghis, Priest, and Williams add that certain physical activities are better suited than others for “musical accompaniment” – in particular, activities like warm ups and weight training, which are repetitive and fatiguing.24 The type of training involved in the martial arts like those offered at Wai Kru perfectly fit this description – “repetitive and fatiguing.” Moves and techniques are “drilled” or practiced numerous times, so that they become instinctual and part of muscle memory. Other routines like jumping rope or hitting bags and mitts are highly repetitive yet physically challenging, and are necessary in order to improve a fighter’s physical fitness and skill.
Music not only affects people on an individual level, but also on an interpersonal, social level. Research has shown that music has the power to manipulate mood and influence the willingness of an individual to demonstrate what is known as “helping behavior” – any action such as sharing, comforting, or rescuing, intended to help or benefit another individual or group of individuals.25 Helping behavior is essential to a gym like Wai Kru because even though the martial arts and competition are mainly individual pursuits, the support of fellow training partners is needed in order to improve as a fighter. Helping behavior at Wai Kru may involve assisting one another with techniques, sharing new training methods or diets, taking turns holding pads and mitts, or looking after and encouraging newcomers. Helping behavior ensures a welcoming and safe environment, and minimizes the risk of injury when sparring, because individuals who are more willing to partake in helping behavior become more aware of the nonverbal cues that someone needs assistance.26
An experiment conducted by David J. Hargraves – director of the Centre for International Research of Music Education – and psychologists Adrian North and Mark Tarrant aimed to test the theory that music can affect helping behavior. In their experiment, individuals at a university gym were played two types music – one was uplifting and pleasant, the other was annoying. After working out, the individuals were then asked to either sign a petition for a charity (a relatively low degree of helping behavior) or distribute leaflets for a charity (a high degree of helping behavior). The results showed that the individuals who listened to the more pleasant music were more willing to distribute the leaflets than those who listened to annoying music, who were only willing to sign the petition.27 Therefore, the more pleasant and enjoyable the music, the more likely individuals are to benefit from each other’s helping behavior – but the question is, does everyone at Wai Kru find the music pleasant? The answer to this question will never be certain until actual interviews are conducted, but it is safe to assume that the majority of the individuals at Wai Kru do enjoy the music, perhaps at a subconscious level, because as explained earlier, rap music closely matches the rhythm and pace of their exercises.
One reason why Wai Kru has a very “no-frills” and gritty vibe is due to the fact that there isn’t any form of proper ceiling installed. Pipes and lights hang freely overhead without any ceiling tiles to cover them (fig.4). This design may not necessarily be the most aesthetically pleasing, but by choosing to leave the ceiling the way it has been for all the past years, Wai Kru is maximizing its ceiling height – choosing to cover the piping would only decrease the ceiling height. And why is it so important to maximize ceiling height? For one, as Augustin suggests, individuals are more creative and innovative in spaces with higher ceilings.28 But how does creativity relate to the seemingly brutal and purely physical world of combat sports like boxing, kickboxing and jiu-jitsu? As the name “mixed martial arts” implies, the combat sports are not just grueling physical pursuits, but also art forms – and like any form of art, creativity is the key to success. In the world of the martial arts, creativity and finesse is needed to link punches and kicks into combinations, and to effortlessly transition from one move to another. Creativity is important even in rough sparring sessions and competitions – because no two opponents are ever alike, fighters must be able to adapt their style and techniques depending on the unique strengths and weaknesses of their opponent.
Another reason why maximizing ceiling height is important is because the lower the ceiling, the more individuals start to feel crowded and claustrophobic. C.D. Cochran and Sally Urbanczyk write in the Journal of Psychology that the lesser the distance between the ceiling and the top of one’s head, the more personal space is required for that individual to feel comfortable.29 In other words, as a result of lower ceiling heights, individuals become more prone to the adverse effects of crowding. Sally Augustin reiterates in her journal People Places and Things that feeling cramped and confined causes individuals to become more stressed and distracted from the tasks they are focused on 30 – such as paying attention to instructors, training, and improving. Furthermore, as explained in Environmental Psychology, the more cramped and crowded an area feels, the less likely individuals are to partake in helping behavior.31 As noted earlier, the presence of helping behavior at Wai Kru is necessary because it improves the experiences of individuals as well as the atmosphere of the gym as a whole. Lastly, feelings of crowding and enclosure may also lead to higher aggression, especially among males.32 Aggression outside the realm of sparring and competition must be kept to a minimum in order to ensure the safety of individuals at Wai Kru, as well as to maintain a pleasant, welcoming environment that makes individuals look forward to – rather than dread – training sessions.
Moreover, maximizing ceiling height is advantageous, because as written by Joan Meyers in the Journal of Consumer Research, higher ceilings induce higher energy levels, as well as clearer and improved thinking among inhabitants of the space.33 Clearer thinking and improved focus are especially important in the combat sports, where one must learn to control emotions and remain calm even under stress, in order to intelligently spar or compete. Clearer thinking also may lead to faster reaction times, which as stressed earlier, is of great importance especially in the world of striking arts like boxing or Muay Thai.
Aside from choosing not to cover the overhanging pipes and lights, one other way in which Wai Kru’s design helps maximize ceiling heights – or in this case, give the impression of spacious ceilings – is through color. Augustin writes in her article “Looking Up” that the color of a ceiling can influence how spacious a room feels.34 Dark colors should be avoided because they make the ceiling seem closer than it really is, meaning individuals perceive the space as being more cramped.35 On the other hand, ceilings which are painted with lighter and brighter colors – such as those at Wai Kru, which are of a the white/beige coloration, make the ceiling seem farther away, giving the illusion of more space, which benefits individuals due to the reasons discussed above.
First, it must be made clear that music should not be regarded by noise, because noise is categorized as being “unwanted sound.”36 As with any boxing or martial arts gym, some of the most common sources of noise at Wai Kru come from the sounds of punching bags and focus mitts being hit, along with the rhythmic slapping of jump ropes against the mat floor. Noise is made up of several components, each determining how negatively the noise will affect an individual. These elements of noise will be discussed below, along with explanations as to how the design of Wai Kru’s facility has helped minimize the adverse effects of noise.
Elements of Noise: 1) Volume
According to Paul Bell, Jeffrey Fischer, and Ross Loomis in Environmental Psychology, the louder the noise, the more stress it causes, meaning the more it diverts the attention of individuals.37 In turn, this decline in concentration due to loud noise negatively affects performance in physical tasks, and interferes with verbal communication – communication in the form of all-important instruction and coaching advice from trainers. At Wai Kru, noise volume is kept to a minimum through the use of padded surfaces throughout the floor and wall surfaces of the gym. Floors are not only carpeted, but are also covered with thick rubber mats, which help absorb noise coming from foot movement, jump ropes, or punching bags. Furthermore, punching bags are not hung from stands – which can be flimsy and rattle causing a lot of noise – but are rather hung from the ceiling, further minimizing noise volume because sound is absorbed up the chains into the ceiling instead of being transmitted into the open space (fig.5).
Elements of Noise: 2) Predictability
Unpredictable noise that occurs at irregular intervals leads to heightened stress, because unpredictable noises are perceived as being a new stimulus and thus feel more threatening than predictable noises.38 Also, the more unpredictable a noise, the more attention is allocated towards it, meaning individuals become less concentrated on the important tasks at hand – whether it be sparring, practicing techniques, or listening to instructors. As noted in Environmental Psychology, subjects in an experiment who were exposed to unpredictable noise made significantly more errors in a proofreading task, demonstrating how unpredictable noise can negatively affect focus and concentration.39 It is essential that unpredictable noise is minimized because focus and concentration are essential especially in the world of boxing and kickboxing, where everything is based on timing and being able to see openings in the opponent’s defense.
Moreover, unpredictable noise can also result in lowered toleration and increased frustration amongst individuals.40 This supposed phenomenon does seem to hold true when observing the behavior of individuals at Wai Kru. During larger classes – inevitably meaning more unpredictable noise – individuals tend to hit the punching bags harder, with more vigor and intensity – which may be a sign of increased frustration and annoyance as well as reduced toleration due to noise. Toleration is essential in martial arts, where one has to be a good training partner, letting others drill and practice moves repeatedly. Toleration is also necessary in order to welcome newcomers, who may not yet have learned the gym etiquette or how to spar with control. Frustration on the other hand is detrimental, because it lowers confidence and increases negativity, which can then affect an individual’s willingness to learn and train at high level of intensity.
And how is unpredictable noise avoided at Wai Kru? For one, noise at Wai Kru cannot be truly considered as “unpredictable”, and in fact is in a sense “predictable,” because over time, an individual gets used the repetitive rhythmic sound of bags being hit and jump ropes being used. This process, known as habituation, means that as long as the stimulus is constant, the less foreign it becomes to an individual, and the weaker the stressful response becomes over time, meaning that the negative effects of unpredictable noise are eventually minimized.41 Also, noise at Wai Kru is predictable because the gym allocates specific spaces for certain activities – the ring and cage area for focus-mitt work and sparring, the punching bag area for bag work, and the weight section only for strength training and conditioning – this means that individuals know exactly where certain noises come from.
Elements of Noise: 3) Perceived control:
As noted in Environmental Psychology, noise which individuals perceive as uncontrollable and unchangeable have more adverse effects than noise which individuals perceive can be readily controlled.42 Overall, noise at Wai Kru is controllable. This is evident because people are told to stop jumping rope or to stop hitting bags when an instructor is explaining a technique. Music is also turned down at the same time. Once an instructor finishes explaining the technique, the sounds of bags being hit and jumping ropes hitting the ground resume once again, along with the music played at its usual volume. By being able to reduce the noise during instruction, individuals feel in greater control of their environment, meaning they feel more comfortable and are better able to concentrate on learning and training. One other aspect of perceived control is whether or not an individual regards the noise as unnecessary.43 Unnecessary noise, like the annoying sound of pens being clicked repeatedly during exams, is more disruptive and detrimental than noise perceived as unavoidable and “necessary.”44 All the so-called “noises” at Wai Kru are perceived as “necessary” because everyone at the facility recognizes the activities that create the noise – eg. jumping rope, hitting heavy bags – as essential, fundamental physical exercises, needed in order to improve in the martial arts.
Noise and Social Behavior
Lastly, noise can also affect social behavior. As explained in Environmental Psychology, results from an experiment by Geen and O’Neal show that noise increases arousal, which as a result can increase aggression.45 As reiterated before, aggression outside the realm of sparring and competition must be kept to a minimum at gyms like Wai Kru, in order to create not only a relaxing and pleasant environment, but also a safe one. Next, noise negatively affects helping behavior because noise reduces concentration, making individuals less aware of “signs of distress” – social cues that someone needs help.46 But through its efforts to reduce noise as previously mentioned, Wai Kru is able to minimize these adverse social effects.
Despite being located in a basement without any windows, Wai Kru’s main training facility is very well lit. Wai Kru creates a well-illuminated environment by situating lights in rows throughout the length of the ceiling, with any free space on the ceiling not taken up by piping being devoted to the installation of lights. And why is a well-illuminated environment important? Leslie Adams and David Zuckerman of the Department of Psychology at Hood College describe that close interpersonal proximity causes more discomfort under dimly lit environments than in brightly lit ones.47 Because the combat sports – in particular, grappling arts like jiu-jitsu – involve a high degree of physical contact, minimizing discomfort is essential in order to make training sessions as pleasant as possible.
But the placing of lights – not just their brightness – must be taken into account, because the wrong placement can result in glare. Glare can hinder one’s ability to see properly, which can therefore slow reaction times. As reiterated before, reaction time is vital in the world of combat sports. Sally Augustin suggests in Place Advantage that glare can be minimized by placing all light sources perpendicular to the locations where people will be working.48 By being placed on the ceiling, the light sources at Wai Kru are perpendicular to the areas on the mats where people train, therefore minimizing glare. In addition, non-reflective surfaces such as carpet, rubber matting, and vinyl are used throughout the gym, further reducing glare by eliminating the possibility that light bounces of the floor.
Lastly, there is an intriguing relationship between the element of lighting and the varying ceiling heights at Wai Kru. Augustin writes in “Looking Up” that we feel most comfortable in spaces with lower ceilings that are next to areas with higher ceilings provided that the area with the lower ceiling is slightly darker than the area with the higher ceiling.49 Augustin argues that one possible reason as to why individuals feel more comfortable in areas like these is because these spaces link back to humans’ instinctual and ancestral past, when cavemen sought out and felt most secure in caves – darker spaces with lower “ceilings” – that overlooked a wide plain or grassland – in a sense the brighter space with the higher “ceiling.”50 Interestingly, close observation of individuals’ behavior at Wai Kru suggests that the areas of the gym with the “cave-like” qualities as described by Augustin are the most inviting and sought after. One such area is the spot next to the cage, where the cage meets the main mat area. This spot, consisting of the cage, with its lower ceiling and slightly dimmer lighting, overlooking the brightly illuminated and high-ceilinged main matt area, is a favorite location for individuals to lean and rest against while interacting with training partners (fig.6). Taking into account that training and sparring can be not just physically challenging but also very nerve racking and intimidating especially to newcomers, Wai Kru’ ideal relationship between ceiling heights and lighting helps minimize anxiety amongst individuals, creating a welcoming, and pleasant environment where individuals feel comfortable and safe.
It is apparent that various design and environmental elements such as color, light, and sound in Wai Kru serve to enhance the performance of individuals during training sessions. In addition, the interplay of these factors helps create a friendly, tension-free atmosphere. Ultimately, the gym’s very design breeds a healthy addiction to training, subtly but effectively enticing both the seasoned veteran and the struggling novice to use Wai Kru as their canvas on which to refine and master the myriad techniques and “brushstrokes” in the art of mixed martial arts.
1. Russel Hill and Robert Barton, “Psychology: Red Enhances Human Performance in Contests,” Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science 435, (2005): 293. doi: 10.1038/435293a.
3. Andrew Elliot, “Perception of the Color Red Enhances the Force and Velocity of Motor Output,” Emotion 11, no.2 (2010): 445-449. doi: 10.1037/a0022599
5. Nicholas Hamid and Adrienne Newport, “Effect of Colour on Physical Strength and Mood in Children,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 69, no.1 (1989): 179-185. doi:10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.52
6. Andrew Elliot, “Perception of the Color Red Enhances the Force and Velocity of Motor Output,” Emotion 11, no.2 (2010): 445-449. doi: 10.1037/a0022599
7. K Yildirim, A. Akalin-Baskaya, M.L. Hidayetoglu, “Effects of Indoor Color on Mood and Cognitive Performance,” Building and Environment 42, no. 9 (2007): 3233-3240. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.07.037.
8. Russel Hill and Robert Barton, “Psychology: Red Enhances Human Performance in Contests,” Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science 435, (2005): 293, doi: 10.1038/435293a.
9. Sally Augustin, “Positive Design – Color!” People, Places, and Things (blog), February 12, 2010, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/people-places-and-things/201002/positive-design-color
13. C. Karageorghis, DL Priest, LS Williams, et. al, “Ergogenic and Psychological Effects of Music During Circuit-Type Exercise,” Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11, no. 6 (2010): 551-559, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.06.004
14. Albert Mehrabian, Public Places and Private Spaces: The Psychology of Work, Play, and Living Environments (New York: Basic Books, 1976).
15. Judy Edworthy and Hannah Waring, “The Effects of Music Tempo and Loudness Level on Treadmill Exercise,” Ergonomics 49, no.15 (2006): 1597-1610. doi: 10.1080/00140130600899104
16. James Waterhouse and P. Hudson, “Effects of Music Tempo Upon Submaximal Cycling Performance,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 20, no.4 (2010): 662-669. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00948.x
17. Lee Crust, “Carry-Over Effects of Music in an Isometric Muscular Endurance Task,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 98, no.3 (2004): 985-91. doi: 10.2466/PMS.98.3.985-991
18. Kathy A. Pearce, “Effects of Different Types of Music on Physical Strength,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 53, no.2 (1981): 351-352. doi: 10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.2061
19. Judy Edworthy and Hannah Waring, “The Effects of Music Tempo and Loudness Level on Treadmill Exercise,” Ergonomics 49, no.15 (2006): 1597-1610. doi: 10.1080/00140130600899104
20. James Waterhouse and P. Hudson, “Effects of Music Tempo Upon Submaximal Cycling Performance,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 20, no.4 (2010): 662-669. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00948.x
21. C. Karageorghis, DL Priest, LS Williams, et. al, “Ergogenic and Psychological Effects of Music During Circuit-Type Exercise,” Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11, no. 6 (2010): 551-559, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.06.004
22. Donal Buckley, “Training Zone Chart” LoneSwimmer (blog), March 10, 2011, http://loneswimmer.com/2011/03/10/training-zone-chart/
23. Rap, Jog.fm: The Best Workout Songs and Playlists for Your Running Pace, 2012, accessed April 18, 2012, http://jog.fm/
24. C. Karageorghis, DL Priest, LS Williams, et. al, “Ergogenic and Psychological Effects of Music During Circuit-Type Exercise,” Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11, no. 6 (2010): 551-559, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.06.004
25. N Eisenberg and P.H. Mussen, The Roots of Prosocial Behavior in Children (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
27. Adrian North, Mark Tarrant, and David Hargreaves, “The Effects of Music on Helping Behavior: A Field Study” Environment and Behavior 36, no.2 (2004): 266-275. doi: 10.1177/0013916503256263
28. Sally Augustin, “Looking Up” People, Places, and Things (blog), July 23, 2010, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/people-places-and-things/201007/looking
29. C.D. Cochran and Sally Urbanczyk, “The Effect of Availability of Vertical Space on Personal Space,” The Journal of Psychology 111, no.1 (1982): 137-140. doi:10.1080/00223980.1982.9923525
30. Sally Augustin, “Looking Up” People, Places, and Things (blog), July 23, 2010, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/people-places-and-things/201007/looking
31. Paula Bell, Jeffrey Fischer, and Ross Loomis, Environmental Psychology (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1978), 204.
33. Joan Meyers-Levy and Juliet Zhu, “The Influence of Ceiling Height,” Journal of Consumer Research 34, no.2 (2007). doi: 10.1086/519146
34. Sally Augustin, “Looking Up” People, Places, and Things (blog), July 23, 2010, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/people-places-and-things/201007/looking
36. Paula Bell, Jeffrey Fischer, and Ross Loomis, Environmental Psychology (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1978), 101.
37. Ibid., 110.
38. Ibid., 102.
41. Ibid., 31.
42. Ibid., 102.
44. Ibid., 112.
46. Ibid., 114.
47. Leslie Adams and David Zuckerman, “The Effect of Lighting Conditions on Personal Space Requirements,” The Journal of General Psychology 118, no.4 (1991): 335-340. doi: 10.1080/00221309.1991.9917794
48. Sally Augustin, Place Advantage: Applied Psychology for Interior Architecture (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2009), 204.
49. Sally Augustin, “Looking Up” People, Places, and Things (blog), July 23, 2010, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/people-places-and-things/201007/looking
Adams, Leslie and David Zuckerman. “The Effect of Lighting Conditions on Personal Space Requirements.” The Journal of General Psychology 118, no.4 (1991). 335-340. doi: 10.1080/00221309.1991.9917794.
Augustin, Sally Augustin. “Looking Up” People, Places, and Things (blog). http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/people-places-and-things/201007/looking
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